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The south gained independence in as Belgium recognised by the Northern Netherlands in as the Kingdom of the Netherlands was created by decree , while the personal union between Luxembourg and the Netherlands was severed in , when William III died with no surviving male heirs.
Ascendancy laws prevented his daughter Queen Wilhelmina from becoming the next Grand Duchess. The policy brought the Dutch enormous wealth and made the colony self-sufficient.
The Netherlands abolished slavery in The Netherlands were able to remain neutral during World War I , in part because the import of goods through the Netherlands proved essential to German survival, until the blockade by the British Royal Navy in The Rotterdam Blitz forced the main element of the Dutch army to surrender four days later.
During the occupation, over , Dutch Jews  were rounded up and transported to Nazi extermination camps ; only a few of them survived.
Dutch workers were conscripted for forced labour in Germany, civilians who resisted were killed in reprisal for attacks on German soldiers, and the countryside was plundered for food.
Although there were thousands of Dutch who risked their lives by hiding Jews from the Germans, over 20, Dutch fascists joined the Waffen SS ,  fighting on the Eastern Front.
On 8 December , the Dutch government-in-exile in London declared war on Japan,  but could not prevent the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies Indonesia.
In , the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands reformed the political structure of the Netherlands, which was a result of international pressure to carry out decolonisation.
Indonesia had declared its independence in August recognised in , and thus was never part of the reformed Kingdom. Suriname followed in After the war the Netherlands left behind an era of neutrality and gained closer ties with neighboring states.
Government-encouraged emigration efforts to reduce population density prompted some , Dutch people to leave the country after the war.
Youths, and students in particular, rejected traditional mores and pushed for change in matters such as women's rights , sexuality , disarmament and environmental issues.
In , the euro was introduced as fiat money and in , the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved. Referendums were held on each island to determine their future status.
This led to the incorporation of these three islands into the country of the Netherlands as special municipalities upon the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles.
The special municipalities are collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands. Most of the areas below sea level are man-made, caused by peat extraction or achieved through land reclamation.
Since the late 16th century, large polder areas are preserved through elaborate drainage systems that include dikes , canals and pumping stations.
Much of the country was originally formed by the estuaries of three large European rivers: The south-western part of the Netherlands is to this day a river delta of these three rivers, the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta.
The European Netherlands is divided into north and south parts by the Rhine, the Waal , its main tributary branch, and the Meuse.
In the past these rivers functioned as a natural barrier between fiefdoms and hence historically created a cultural divide, as is evident in some phonetic traits that are recognisable on either side of what the Dutch call their "Great Rivers" de Grote Rivieren.
Just like the previous, this river forms a linguistic divide: Over the centuries, the Dutch coastline has changed considerably as a result of natural disasters and human intervention.
Most notable in terms of land loss was the storm of [ citation needed ] , which created the archipelago of Zeeland in the south-west.
On 14 December , St. Lucia's flood affected the Netherlands and Germany, killing more than 50, people in one of the most destructive floods in recorded history.
The huge North Sea flood of early February caused the collapse of several dikes in the south-west of the Netherlands; more than 1, people drowned in the flood.
The Dutch government subsequently instituted a large-scale programme, the " Delta Works ", to protect the country against future flooding, which was completed over a period of more than thirty years.
The impact of disasters was to an extent increased through human activity. Relatively high-lying swampland was drained to be used as farmland.
The drainage caused the fertile peat to contract and ground levels to drop, upon which groundwater levels were lowered to compensate for the drop in ground level, causing the underlying peat to contract further.
Additionally, until the 19th century peat was mined, dried, and used for fuel, further exacerbating the problem. Centuries of extensive and poorly controlled peat extraction lowered an already low land surface by several metres.
Even in flooded areas, peat extraction continued through turf dredging. To guard against floods, a series of defences against the water were contrived.
In the first millennium AD , villages and farmhouses were built on man-made hills called terps. Later, these terps were connected by dikes.
In the 12th century, local government agencies called " waterschappen " "water boards" or " hoogheemraadschappen " "high home councils" started to appear, whose job it was to maintain the water level and to protect a region from floods; these agencies continue to exist.
As the ground level dropped, the dikes by necessity grew and merged into an integrated system. By the 13th century windmills had come into use to pump water out of areas below sea level.
The windmills were later used to drain lakes, creating the famous polders. The Netherlands is one of the countries that may suffer most from climate change.
Not only is the rising sea a problem, but erratic weather patterns may cause the rivers to overflow. After the disaster , the Delta Works was constructed, a comprehensive set of civil works throughout the Dutch coast.
The project started in and was largely completed in with the completion of the Maeslantkering. New projects have been periodically started since to renovate and renew the Delta Works.
A main goal of the Delta project was to reduce the risk of flooding in South Holland and Zeeland to once per 10, years compared to 1 per years for the rest of the country.
New risk assessments occasionally show problems requiring additional Delta project dike reinforcements. The Delta project is considered by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the seven wonders of the modern world.
It is anticipated that global warming in the 21st century will result in a rise in sea level. The Netherlands is actively preparing for a sea level rise.
A politically neutral Delta Commission has formulated an action plan to cope with a sea level rise of 1. The plan encompasses the reinforcement of the existing coastal defences like dikes and dunes with 1.
Climate change will not only threaten the Netherlands from the sea side, but could also alter rainfall patterns and river run-off.
To protect the country from river flooding, another program is already being executed. The Room for the River plan grants more flow space to rivers, protects the major populated areas and allows for periodic flooding of indefensible lands.
The few residents who lived in these so-called "overflow areas" have been moved to higher ground, with some of that ground having been raised above anticipated flood levels.
The predominant wind direction in the European Netherlands is southwest, which causes a mild maritime climate , with moderately warm summers and cool winters, and typically high humidity.
This is especially true close to the Dutch coastline, where the difference in temperature between summer and winter, as well as between day and night is noticeably smaller than it is in the southeast of the country.
On average, snow can occur from November to April, but sometimes occurs in May or October too. Precipitation throughout the year is distributed relatively equally each month.
Summer and autumn months tend to gather a little more precipitation than the other months, mainly because of the intensity of the rainfall rather than the frequency of rain days this is especially the case in summer, when lightning is also much more frequent.
The number of sunshine hours is affected by the fact that because of the geographical latitude, the length of the days varies between barely eight hours in December and nearly 17 hours in June.
The Netherlands has 20 national parks and hundreds of other nature reserves, that include lakes , heathland , woods , dunes and other habitats.
Most of these are owned by Staatsbosbeheer , the national department for forestry and nature conservation and Natuurmonumenten literally 'Natures monuments' , a private organisation that buys, protects and manages nature reserves.
It consists primarily of the salt waters of the Oosterschelde, but also includes mud flats, meadows, and shoals.
Because of the large variety of sea life, including unique regional species, the park is popular with Scuba divers. Other activities include sailing, fishing, cycling, and bird watching.
According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the European territory of the Netherlands belongs to the ecoregion of Atlantic mixed forests.
In , the last old original natural woods were cut down, and most woods today are planted monocultures of trees like Scots pine and trees that are not native to the Netherlands.
The islands of the Caribbean Netherlands enjoy a tropical climate with warm weather all year round. The Leeward Antilles are warmer and drier than the Windward islands.
In summer, the Windward Islands can be subject to hurricanes. The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy since , and due to the efforts of Johan Rudolph Thorbecke , a parliamentary democracy since The Netherlands is described as a consociational state.
Dutch politics and governance are characterised by an effort to achieve broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole.
In , The Economist ranked the Netherlands as the 11th most democratic country in the world. The monarch is the head of state , at present King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands.
Constitutionally, the position is equipped with limited powers. By law, the King has the right to be periodically briefed and consulted on government affairs.
Depending on the personalities and relationships of the King and the ministers, the monarch might have influence beyond the power granted by the Constitution of the Netherlands.
The executive power is formed by the Council of Ministers , the deliberative organ of the Dutch cabinet. The cabinet usually consists of 13 to 16 ministers and a varying number of state secretaries.
One to three ministers are ministers without portfolio. The head of government is the Prime Minister of the Netherlands , who often is the leader of the largest party of the coalition.
The Prime Minister is a primus inter pares , with no explicit powers beyond those of the other ministers. Mark Rutte has been Prime Minister since October ; the Prime Minister had been the leader of the largest party continuously since The cabinet is responsible to the bicameral parliament , the States General , which also has legislative powers.
The members of the House of Representatives , the lower house , are elected in direct elections on the basis of party-list proportional representation.
These are held every four years, or sooner in case the cabinet falls for example: The States-Provincial are directly elected every four years as well.
The members of the provincial assemblies elect the 75 members of the Senate , the upper house , which has the power to reject laws, but not propose or amend them.
Both houses send members to the Benelux Parliament , a consultative council. Both trade unions and employers organisations are consulted beforehand in policymaking in the financial, economic and social areas.
They meet regularly with the government in the Social-Economic Council. This body advises government and its advice cannot be put aside easily. The Netherlands has a long tradition of social tolerance.
In the late 19th century this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance transformed into a system of pillarisation , in which religious groups coexisted separately and only interacted at the level of government.
This tradition of tolerance influences Dutch criminal justice policies on recreational drugs , prostitution , LGBT rights , euthanasia , and abortion , which are among the most liberal in the world.
Because of the multi-party system , no single party has held a majority in parliament since the 19th century, and coalition cabinets had to be formed.
Since suffrage became universal in , the Dutch political system has been dominated by three families of political parties: These parties co-operated in coalition cabinets in which the Christian Democrats had always been a partner: In the s, the party system became more volatile: In the election , the CDA lost its dominant position.
In the elections , this cabinet lost its majority, because of an increased support for the CDA and the rise of the right LPF , a new political party, around Pim Fortuyn , who was assassinated a week before the elections.
The cabinet initiated an ambitious programme of reforming the welfare state , the healthcare system , and immigration policy.
In these elections, the CDA remained the largest party and the Socialist Party made the largest gains. The big winner of the elections was Geert Wilders , whose right wing PVV ,   the ideological successor to the LPF , more than doubled its number of seats.
This unprecedented minority government was supported by PVV, but proved ultimately to be unstable,  when on 21 April , Wilders, leader of PVV, unexpectedly 'torpedoed seven weeks of austerity talks' on new austerity measures, paving the way for early elections.
On 5 November they formed the second Rutte cabinet. The Netherlands is divided into twelve provinces, each under a King's Commissioner Commissaris van de Koning , except for Limburg province where the position is named Governor Gouverneur but has the same tasks.
All provinces are divided into municipalities gemeenten , of which there are The country is also subdivided into 24 water districts, governed by a water board waterschap or hoogheemraadschap , each having authority in matters concerning water management.
The Dutch water boards are among the oldest democratic entities in the world still in existence. Direct elections of the water boards take place every 4 years.
The administrative structure on the 3 BES islands, collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands , is different.
These islands have the status of openbare lichamen public bodies rather than municipalities and as administrative units are generally referred to as special municipalities.
They are not part of a province. The Netherlands has several Belgian exclaves  and within those even several enclaves which are still part of the province of North Brabant.
Because the Netherlands and Belgium are both in the Schengen Area , citizens of respective countries can travel through these enclaves. The history of Dutch foreign policy has been characterised by its neutrality.
The Dutch economy is very open and relies strongly on international trade. The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: One of the more controversial international issues surrounding the Netherlands is its liberal policy towards soft drugs.
During and after the Dutch Golden Age , the Dutch people built up a commercial and colonial empire. The most important colonies were present-day Suriname and Indonesia.
Indonesia became independent after the Indonesian National Revolution in the s following a war of independence, international pressure and several United Nations Security Council resolutions.
Suriname became independent in The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands.
In addition, many people from these countries are living permanently in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has one of the oldest standing armies in Europe; it was first established as such by Maurice of Nassau in the late s.
The Dutch army was used throughout the Dutch Empire. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Dutch army was transformed into a conscription army.
The army was unsuccessfully deployed during the Belgian Revolution in After , it was deployed mainly in the Dutch colonies, as the Netherlands remained neutral in European wars including the First World War , until the Netherlands was invaded in World War II and quickly defeated by the Wehrmacht in May In conscription was suspended, and the Dutch army was once again transformed into a professional army.
Since the s the Dutch army has been involved in the Bosnian War and the Kosovo War , it held a province in Iraq after the defeat of Saddam Hussein , and it was engaged in Afghanistan.
The military is composed of four branches, all of which carry the prefix Koninklijke Royal:. The submarine service is open to women as of 1 January The Korps Commandotroepen , the Special Operations Force of the Netherlands Army, is open to women, but because of the extremely high physical demands for initial training, it is almost impossible for a woman to become a commando.
The Netherlands has a developed economy and has been playing a special role in the European economy for many centuries. Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, agriculture, trade, and banking have been leading sectors of the Dutch economy.
The Netherlands has a high level of economic freedom. The Netherlands is one of the top countries in the Global Enabling Trade Report 2nd in , and was ranked the fifth most competitive economy in the world by the Swiss International Institute for Management Development in Foodstuffs form the largest industrial sector.
Other major industries include chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, trade, services and tourism.
The Netherlands has the 17th-largest economy in the world , and ranks 10th in GDP nominal per capita. Growth slowed considerably from to with the global economic slowdown, but accelerated to 4.
In May , inflation was at 2. In Q3 and Q4 , the Dutch economy contracted by 0. Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands.
It is situated near Dam Square in the city's centre. As a founding member of the euro , the Netherlands replaced for accounting purposes its former currency, the "gulden" guilder , on 1 January , along with 15 other adopters of the euro.
Actual euro coins and banknotes followed on 1 January One euro was equivalent to 2. In the Caribbean Netherlands , the United States dollar is used instead of the euro.
The Dutch location gives it prime access to markets in the UK and Germany, with the Port of Rotterdam being the largest port in Europe. Other important parts of the economy are international trade Dutch colonialism started with co-operative private enterprises such as the Dutch East India Company , banking and transport.
The Netherlands successfully addressed the issue of public finances and stagnating job growth long before its European partners.
Amsterdam is the 5th-busiest tourist destination in Europe with more than 4. Also of economic importance is BrabantStad , a partnership between the municipalities of Breda , Eindhoven , Helmond , 's-Hertogenbosch and Tilburg and the province of North Brabant.
BrabantStad is the fastest growing economic region in the Netherlands, with the Brabantse Stedenrij polycentric city region as one of the national top regions, behind the Randstad megalopolis Amsterdam , Rotterdam , The Hague and Utrecht.
With a total of 1. Of all the money that goes to research and development in the Netherlands, one third is spent in Eindhoven. A quarter of the jobs in the region are in technology and ICT.
Of all European patent applications in the field of physics and electronics about eight per cent is from North Brabant. This economic cooperation agreement between three cities in three countries has created one of the most innovative regions in the European Union measured in terms of money invested in technology and knowledge economy.
The Netherlands continues to be one of the leading European nations for attracting foreign direct investment and is one of the five largest investors in the United States.
The economy experienced a slowdown in , but in recovered to the fastest pace in six years on the back of increased exports and strong investment.
The pace of job growth reached year highs in The Netherlands is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum 's Global Competitiveness Report.
Beginning in the s, the Netherlands discovered huge natural gas resources. The sale of natural gas generated enormous revenues for the Netherlands for decades, adding hundreds of billions of euros to the government's budget.
Apart from coal and gas, the country has no mining resources. The last coal mine was closed in The Groningen gas field , one of the largest natural gas fields in the world, is situated near Slochteren.
The cost of damage repairs, structural improvements to buildings, and compensation for home value decreases has been estimated at 6.
Around 35, homes are said to be affected. The Dutch agricultural sector is highly mechanised, and has a strong focus on international exports. The Netherlands has, at some time in recent history, supplied one quarter of all of the world's exported tomatoes, and trade of one-third of the world's exports of chilis , tomatoes and cucumbers goes through the country.
The Netherlands also exports one-fifteenth of the world's apples. Aside from that, a significant portion of Dutch agricultural exports consists of fresh-cut plants, flowers, and flower bulbs, with the Netherlands exporting two-thirds of the world's total.
Mobility on Dutch roads has grown continuously since the s and now exceeds billion km travelled per year,  three quarters of which are done by car.
Trains are frequent, with two trains per hour on lesser lines [j] , two to four trains per hour on average, and up to eight trains an hour on the busiest lines.
Cycling is a ubiquitous mode of transport in the Netherlands. Almost as many kilometres are covered by bicycle as by train. There are large bicycle parking facilities, particularly in city centres and at train stations.
The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel , Switzerland, and into France.
As of [update] , Rotterdam was the world's eighth largest container port handling The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas.
From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In , the Betuweroute , a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, was completed.
Schiphol Airport , just southwest of Amsterdam, is the main international airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest airport in Europe in terms of passengers.
In , the Royal Schiphol Group airports handled 70 million passengers. The rollout will be undertaken by Switzerland-based power and automation company ABB and Dutch startup Fastned, and will aim to provide at least one station within a kilometre radius 30 miles from every home in the Netherlands.
The Netherlands had an estimated population of 17,, as of January It is the 63rd most populous country in the world. Between and , the country's population almost doubled from 5.
From to , the population further increased, to The fertility rate in the Netherlands is 1. Life expectancy is high in the Netherlands: According to a estimate, the population was The Dutch are the tallest people in the world,  with an average height of 1.
According to Eurostat , in there were 1. The Netherlands is the 24th most densely populated country in the world, with The Randstad is the country's largest conurbation located in the west of the country and contains the four largest cities: According to Dutch Central Statistics Bureau, in , 28 percent of Dutch population had a spendable income above 40, euros which does not include spendings on health care or education.
The official language is Dutch , which is spoken by the vast majority of the inhabitants. In the European part of the kingdom two other regional languages are recognised under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.
The first of these recognised regional languages is Low Saxon Nedersaksisch in Dutch. Low Saxon consists of several dialects spoken in the north and east, like Twents in the region of Twente , and Drents in the province of Drenthe.
Secondly, Limburgish is also recognised as a regional language. It consists of Dutch varieties of Meuse-Rhenish Franconian languages and is spoken in the south-eastern province of Limburg.
Ripuarian language , which is spoken in Kerkrade and Vaals in the form of, respectively, the Kerkrade dialect and the Vaals dialect   is not recognised as a regional language of the Netherlands.
These dialects are however sometimes considered to be a part of or related to Limburgish. English has a formal status in the special municipalities of Saba and Sint Eustatius.
It is widely spoken on these islands. Papiamento has a formal status in the special municipality of Bonaire. Yiddish and the Romani language were recognised in as non-territorial languages.
Only during the last three years in VWO one foreign language is mandatory. Besides English, the standard modern languages are French and German , although schools can replace one of these modern languages with Spanish , Turkish , Arabic , or Russian.
Religious identification in the Netherlands . Religion in the Netherlands was predominantly Christianity until late into the 20th century.
Although religious diversity remains, there has been a decline of religious adherence. In , Statistics Netherlands , the Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands, found that Christians comprised the Islam comprised the 4.
The Constitution of the Netherlands guarantees freedom of education, which means that all schools that adhere to general quality criteria receive the same government funding.
This includes schools based on religious principles by religious groups especially Roman Catholic and various Protestant.
By , Protestantism shrunk demographically to equal Roman Catholicism, and going onwards, both Christian branches began to decline.
There is one major exception: Islam which grew considerably as the result of immigration. Since the year there has been raised awareness of religion, mainly due to Muslim extremism.
The Dutch royal family has been traditionally associated with Calvinism , specifically the disestablished and now non-existent Dutch Reformed Church.
The Dutch Reformed Church has been the only major Protestant church in the Netherlands from the Protestant Reformation up until the 19th century.
It encompassed the vast majority of Protestants in the Reformed tradition until a series of splits in and in diversified Dutch Calvinism.
In , a Roman Catholic became Queen consort. Christianity is currently the largest religion in the Netherlands.
The provinces of North Brabant and Limburg have historically been strongly Roman Catholic, and some of their people might still consider the Catholic Church as a base for their cultural identity.
Protestantism in the Netherlands consists of a number of churches within various traditions. Several orthodox Reformed and liberal churches did not merge into the PKN.
Although in the Netherlands as a whole Christianity has become a minority, the Netherlands contains a Bible Belt from Zeeland to the northern parts of the province Overijssel , in which Protestant particularly Reformed beliefs remain strong, and even has majorities in municipal councils.
Islam is the second largest religion in the state. This included migrants from former Dutch colonies , such as Surinam and Indonesia , but mainly migrant workers from Turkey and Morocco.
Most of these are Indo-Surinamese. There are also sizable populations of Hindu immigrants from India and Sri Lanka , and some Western adherents of Hinduism-oriented new religious movements such as Hare Krishnas.
The Netherlands has an estimated , Buddhists or people strongly attracted to this religion, mainly ethnic Dutch people.
There are about 45, Jews in the Netherlands. Education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 5 and All children in the Netherlands usually attend elementary school from on average ages 4 to It comprises eight grades, the first of which is facultative.
Based on an aptitude test, the eighth grade teacher's recommendation and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers, a choice is made for one of the three main streams of secondary education.
After completing a particular stream, a pupil may still continue in the penultimate year of the next stream. The VMBO has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels.
Successfully completing the vmbo results in a low-level vocational degree that grants access to the MBO. The MBO middle-level applied education is a form of education primarily focuses on teaching a practical trade, or a vocational degree.
The HBO higher professional education are universities of professional education applied sciences that award professional bachelor's degrees; similar to polytechnic degrees.
A HBO degree gives access to the university system. The VWO comprising atheneum and gymnasium has 6 grades and prepares for studying at a research university.
Universities offer of a three-year bachelor's degree, followed by a one or two year master's degree, which in turn can be followed by a four or five-year doctoral degree program.
Doctoral candidates in the Netherlands are generally non-tenured employees of a university. All Dutch schools and universities are publicly funded and managed with the exception of religious schools that are publicly funded but not managed by the state even though requirements are necessary for the funding to be authorised.
Dutch universities have a tuition fee of about 2, euros a year for students from the Netherlands and the European Union. The amount is about 10, euros for non-EU students.
In , the Netherlands has maintained its number one position at the top of the annual Euro health consumer index EHCI , which compares healthcare systems in Europe, scoring of a maximum 1, points.
The Netherlands has been in the top three countries in each report published since On 48 indicators such as patient rights and information, accessibility, prevention and outcomes, the Netherlands secured its top position among 37 European countries for the sixth year in a row.
Ever since a major reform of the health care system in , the Dutch system received more points in the Index each year.
According to the HCP Health Consumer Powerhouse , the Netherlands has 'a chaos system', meaning patients have a great degree of freedom from where to buy their health insurance, to where they get their healthcare service.
The difference between the Netherlands and other countries is that the chaos is managed. Healthcare decisions are being made in a dialogue between the patients and healthcare professionals.
Health insurance in the Netherlands is mandatory. Healthcare in the Netherlands is covered by two statutory forms of insurance:.
While Dutch residents are automatically insured by the government for AWBZ, everyone has to take out their own basic healthcare insurance basisverzekering , except those under 18 who are automatically covered under their parents' premium.
The landscape in this area is characterized by high dikes along wide rivers, orchards along the levees formed by the rivers, and numerous large bridges over which pass the roads and railways that connect the central Netherlands with the southern provinces.
In the late Pleistocene Epoch from about , to 11, years ago , the Scandinavian ice sheet covered the northern half of the Netherlands.
After this period, a large area in the north of what is now the Netherlands was left covered by moraine glacial accumulation of earth and rock debris.
In the centre and south, the Rhine and Maas rivers unloaded thick layers of silt and gravel transported from the European mountain chains.
Later, during the Holocene Epoch i. If the peat soil was washed away by the sea or dug away by humans for the production of fuel and salt , lakes were created.
Many of these were reclaimed in later centuries as mentioned above , while others now form highly valued outdoor recreational areas.
The climate of the Netherlands is temperate, with gentle winters, cool summers, and rainfall in every season. Southerly and westerly winds predominate, and the sea moderates the climate through onshore winds and the effect of the Gulf Stream.
The position of the country—between the area of high-pressure air masses centred on the Azores and the low-pressure region centred on Iceland —makes the Netherlands an area of collision between warm and polar air masses, thus creating unsettled weather.
Winds meet with little resistance over the flat country, though the hills in the south significantly diminish the velocity of the potent wind that prevails along the coast.
On average, frost occurs 60 days per year. Annual rainfall averages about 31 inches mm , with only about 25 clear days per year. The average rainfall is highest in summer August and autumn and lowest in springtime.
The country is known—not least through the magnificent landscapes of Dutch painters—for its heavy clouds, and on an average day three-fifths of the sky is clouded.
Most wild Dutch plant species are of the Atlantic district within the Euro-Siberian phytogeographic region. Gradients of salt and winter temperature variations cause relatively minor zonal differences in both wild and garden plants from the coast to more continental regions.
The effects of elevation are negligible. Vegetation from coastal sand dunes, muddy coastal areas, slightly brackish lakes, and river deltas is especially scarce in the surrounding countries.
Lakes, marshes, peatland, woods, heaths, and agricultural areas determine the general floral species. Clay, peat, and sand are important soil factors for the inland vegetation regions.
Animal life is relegated by region according to vegetation. Seabirds and other sea life, such as mollusks, are found especially in the muddy Waddenzee area and in the extreme southwest.
Migrating birds pass in huge numbers through the Netherlands or remain for a summer or winter stay. Species of waterbirds and marsh and pasture birds are numerous.
Larger mammals, such as roe deer , red deer, foxes, and badgers, are mostly restricted to nature reserves. Some species, such as boars, beavers, fallow deer , mouflons, and muskrats, have been introduced locally or reintroduced.
Some reptiles and amphibians are endangered. Numerous species of river fish and river lobsters have become scarce because of water pollution.
There is a diversity of brackish and freshwater animals inhabiting the many lakes, canals, and drainage ditches, but the vulnerable species of the nutritionally deficient waters have become rare.
Nature reserves have been formed by governmental and private organizations. Well-known reserves include the Naardermeer of Amsterdam, the Hoge Veluwe National Park, and the Oostvaardersplassen in the centre of the country.
Some endangered species are protected by law. Popular belief holds that the Dutch are a mixture of Frisians , Saxons , and Franks.
In fact, research has made plausible the contention that the autochthonous inhabitants of the region were a mixture of pre-Germanic and Germanic population groups who in the course of time had converged on the main deltaic region of western Europe.
There emerged from these groups in the 7th and 8th centuries some major polities based on certain ethnic and cultural unities that then came to be identified as Frisians, Saxons, and Franks.
The Dutch Republic originated from medieval statelets, and its legal successor, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, has attracted countless immigrants through the centuries.
A strong impetus was the principle of freedom of thought, which engendered the relative tolerance that developed in the 16th and 17th centuries. These sentiments were—and are—most manifest in the prosperous commercial and industrial centres in the western provinces, which attracted many members of persecuted religious or political minorities.
Among these were southern lowlanders, French Huguenots , and Portuguese Jews, along with many people who sought to improve their economic situation, such as Germans and non-Iberian Jews.
In the 20th century, immigrants from the former Dutch overseas colonies added to the influx; they included Indonesians and peoples from the Moluccas and from Suriname on the northeast coast of South America.
In recent decades, however, as Muslims from Turkey and Morocco arrived in large numbers, Dutch embracement of diversity has been more tenuous.
At the beginning of the 21st century, not only did a virulent anti-immigrant movement emerge, but also the government required that immigrants pass a test in their country of origin relating to Dutch language and culture before they were allowed to enter the Netherlands.
The language in the whole of the country is Dutch , sometimes referred to as Netherlandic , a Germanic language that is also spoken by the inhabitants of northern Belgium where it is called Flemish.
Afrikaans , an official language of South Africa , is a variant of the Dutch spoken by 17th-century emigrants from the Holland and Zeeland regions.
Apart from Dutch, the inhabitants of the northern province of Friesland also speak their own language called Frisian in English , which is closer to English than to either Dutch or German.
English, French, and German are among the languages commonly heard. The considerable hospitality exhibited by the Dutch is perhaps to some extent rooted in the spirit of humanism that was typical of the Dutch Republic of the 16th to the 18th century.
Figures such as Desiderius Erasmus in the 16th century and Hugo Grotius in the 17th century epitomize that spirit.
It resulted in a rather pragmatic mode of thinking that has dominated Dutch bourgeois culture since the 16th century, coexisting with growing commercial acumen.
Evolving Dutch society came to encompass a diversity of religious traditions, from rigid Calvinism and more-tolerant forms of Protestantism to conformist Roman Catholicism.
Calvinism was always the religion of the national elite, while Roman Catholicism could be practiced only behind closed doors before when all religions were pronounced equal before the law , and at various times certain sects were persecuted.Gibt es universelle Glücklich-Macher? Ich habe keine SMS bekommen? Im Laufe der Jahre haben sich die traditionellen Spielautomaten zu hochmodernen Spielprogrammen entwickelt. Um die zweite Stufe zu nutzen, muss die zweite Einzahlung innerhalb von sieben Tagen erfolgen, nachdem Sie zum ersten Mal Geld auf Ihr Konto überwiesen haben. Hat also alles ohne Probleme geklappt. Dawn of the Bread. Das dachte ich auch, weil ich auch irgendwas von der Fortune Lounge bei CM gelesen hatte Dies ist aber für die meisten Spieler mehr als ausreichend. Details Bilder des Euro Palace. Doch auch Musicals können als Inspiration dienen. Startseite online casino werbung model online casino werbung model. Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. You are in fun mode - no real money play. Wenn Sie die App auf dem Desktop haben wollen, können Sie diese herunterladen. Dawn Of The Bread. Netflix hat die Unterhaltungsindustrie verändert und ist einer der am schnellsten wachsenden Entertainment-Anbieter der jüngeren Geschichte.